Melasma or hyperpigmentation is dark, irregular patches of skin discoloration commonly found on the upper cheek, nose, lips, upper lip and forehead. These patches often develop gradually over time. Melasma does not cause any other symptoms beyond the cosmetic discoloration. It is also sometimes enhanced by surges in certain hormones.
Causes of melasma
It is thought to be the stimulation of melanocytes or pigment- producing cells by the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone to produce more melanin when the skin is exposed to sun. The incidence of melasma also increases with thyroid disease.
Treatment:Combination of laser light as well as skin lightening serums leads the pigment under the skin to break and stop the activity of melanocytes or pigment producing cells.